Practical Information about Romania
Romania is situated in south-eastern Europe, between latitudes 43°37’07″ and 48°15’06″ north and longitudes 20°15’44″ and 29°41’24″ est, extending approximately 480 Km north to south and 640 east to west.
The country has an area of 237.500 sq. km and a population of over 20 mil. of which 89% are Romanians, 7% Hungarians, 2% Gypsies, with small minorities of Germans, Ukrainians, Serbs, Slovaks, Turks, Russians, Bulgarians.
The Carpathians form a mountainous arc in the center of the country, bordered on both sides by hills and plateaus and finally the great planes of the outer rim.
Forests cover over a quarter of the country and fauna is one of the richest in Europe including wolfs, bears, deer, lynx and chamois.
The mighty Danube forms the southern bounder of the country terminating in the Danube Delta on the Black Sea, a heaven for countless native and migratory birds.
Countries sharing borders with Romania are Hungary, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Rep. of Moldavia and the Ukraine.
The territory of Romania has been inhabited since the Paleolithic period. The oldest ever bones of homo sapiens were found in Transylvania, in 2003
Present-day Romania was first inhabited by Dacians, fierce warriors subdued by the Romans under Trajan in two extremely difficulty campaigns at the beginning of the 2nd century AD. The relatively brief roman occupation, 165 years nevertheless left as a lasting legacy the Latin language that survived the many subsequent invasions of migratory peoples.
Over the years a Romanian identity progressively developed itself, with in the 13th and 14th centuries the formation of the feudal states of Wallachia and Moldavia. Centuries of struggles against the Turks ensued in this states. Meanwhile Transylvania was successively occupied by Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Finally Moldavia and Wallachia were united in 1859, independence was achieved 1877, and union with Transylvania 1918.
Communist rule, established after the 2nd world war lasted 45 years and was ended by the December revolution of 1989.
The climate is temperate-continental, characteristic of Central Europe (hot summers and cold winters, very distinct seasons, abundant snow falls especially in the mountains).
Warmestareas are in the south.
Annual average rain fall is 677 mm, with more in the mountains – (1.000-1.400 m) and less on the coast (below 400 m).
Avarage temperatures in different parts of the country are:
The official language is Romanian, and is of Latin origin. English, French and German are widely spoken.
Most Romanians are Orthodox Christians (87%). Catholics of the Oriental and Roman rite are well represented (5%). There are Reformed/Lutheran (3%), Unitarian (1%), Neo-Protestant, Armenian, Moslem and Jewish communities.
In fact what’s interesting in a tour in Romania is that one can meet and admire a huge diversity of cultures and traditions.